The word stem is generally used in plant kingdom for plant’s aerial part which bears several diversified structures as leaves, flowers, fruits etc. and can regenerate all these structures after any injury, cut or senescence. Similarly several cells in animal kingdom also have capability to regenerate into similar types or different types of cell, tissue, organs and structures and are called Stem Cells. Continue reading “India among top 5 Stem Cell research centers”
As we know recently Indian scientists have completed a milestone journey by cloning the world’s first buffalo named Samrupa. But, cloning is the most tedious process in animal biotechnology and there are several reasons for its success rate being very less. In the case of Dolly, the first sheep cloned 13 years ago, out of the 272 trials only five were successful and this time during samrupa’s cloning, out of 100s only one has become successful and that new born calf also died within 5 days.
Following may be the 10 most important hurdles in the process of cloning
Selection of defective cells
The animal to be cloned must be in a good health condition and disease free. Even the cells/tissues selected should be defect free both at nuclear and cytoplasmic levels.
The buffalo clone named Samrupa is the first time some animal has been cloned in India. ‘Samrupa’ is a Hindi word meaning some one who is exactly same as some one else. So, samrupa was exactly same as her mother buffalo. This is a milestone for Indian science and technology. Dr. S K Singla a scientist at the National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, Haryana and his biotechnologist team had been working on the cloning of the calf for the last four years. This milestone came to Indian science 13 years after the first animal Dolly was cloned from her mother sheep. Samrupa’s mother is a one year old buffalo of the famous Murrah variety of Haryana that gives 35 Kgs of milk per day.
What is CLONING:
Reproductive Cloning. To clone an animal, researchers first take mature cells, such as skin cells, from the animal to be cloned. Next, they take an unfertilized egg from an adult female of the same species and remove the nucleus, which is the cell structure that houses the chromosomes that contain an organismâ€™s DNA. Researchers then place one of the skin cells next to the nucleus-free egg and apply an electric pulse, which causes the skin cell to fuse with the egg. The fused cell, which contains the skin cellâ€™s nucleus, divides and forms an early-stage embryo. This embryo is implanted in the uterus of another female animal, called a surrogate mother, and allowed to develop. The surrogate mother then gives birth to an animal that is genetically identical to the adult that donated the skin cells. This newborn animal is referred to as a clone. Continue reading “Indian scientists clone first buffalo in the world”